About Me

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I am a Zimbabwean who is a permanent resident of New Zealand after coming to New Zealand in July 2007. I am currently (in 2011) studying for the Bachelor of Occupational Therapy degree at Otago Polytechnic (second year), Wintec Avalon Drive Campus in Hamilton, New Zealand.

Thursday, 13 October 2011

Participation in Occupation 2: Sixth (and last) Posting - enjoying my guitar and ambience

In class last week, we were divided into groups based on our chosen activities. My guitar playing was classed under the framework of PLAY. I will here refer to the first year 'Adaptive Living Occupation BT 127001' Moodle notes on the subject of PLAY under GAMES whose first part states that "Play is more than a mere physiological phenomenon or a physiological reflex. It goes beyond the confines of purely physical or purely biological activity." There is sense and something 'at play' with play which imparts meaning to it.

With reference to my chosen activity of playing the guitar, these same Moodle notes go on to say that "Play is easily recognised but not easily defined...it takes many forms (including games, performing instrumental music, drama and theatrical performances). It is difficult to say exactly what it is. As indicated in the quote above...takes a cultural view of play and links it with the arts, drama, ritual, feasts and other cultural performances."

Playing the ukulele (small guitar) out in the country, enjoying nature's serenity


I also visited Raglan beach with my family and we had 2 guitars that we played just like the guy in the video below.



Ferguson, Manser & Pickering (2000, p. 26) defines ambience as "...atmosphere, surroundings, environment, setting, milieu, aura, mood, feeling, vibes, tenor, spirit."

When I am playing my guitar, this ambience may be determined and conveyed by the mood and feelings I have myself. This may also be determined by the mood in the atmosphere in a room, venue, geographical area etc. If I play and strum my guitar aggressively like a heavy metal music guitarist, I produce a euphoric mood or atmosphere which would be the opposite of what I would achieve playing a laid back jazz or country folk song on the same guitar. A good example is the way the great song 'Candle in the wind' by Sir Elton John emotionally affected the whole world during Princess Diana's funeral. Even now, long after that funeral, just strumming that song on the guitar brings sorrowful tears to many.

Record of comments that I posted on the blogs of 4 other students

Izabella Circa: I commented on her last posting titled ‘End of story’ that she posted on the 5th of October 2011.

Cara Tate: I commented on her third posting entitled ‘Affordances’ that she posted on the 12th of October 2011.

Anna Foster: I commented on her first posting on the 8th of September 2011.

Heather Lowen: I commented on her ‘Affordances Part 2’ posting on the 18th of October 2011.

NOTE: I have also posted comments onto various other student blogs, namely, Nancy, Chloe, Lisa, Divika, Amanda, and Victoria Aguelera.

NOTE: I have tried unsuccessfully to hang indent my reference list below in 'Blogger.'


Adaptive Living Occupation (2010), Play/Games: BT 127001 (Lecture notes). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago Polytechnic, School of Occupational Therapy.

Caulton, R. & Dickson, R. (2007). What’s going on? Finding an explanation for what we do. In J. Creek & A. Lawson – Porter (Eds.), Contemporary issues in Occupational Therapy (pp. 87 – 114). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Christiansen, C. & Townsend, E. (2004). Introduction to occupation: The art and science of living. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Crazy Guitar Solo (Original). (2007). Retrieved September 27, 2011, from http://http//youtu.be/6jAphZMWAFA

Crepeau, E. (2003). Analysing occupation and activity: A way of thinking about occupational performance. In Crepeau, E., Cohn, E., & Schell, B. (Eds.), Willard & Spackman's occupational therapy (10th ed., pp 189-198). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Dove's Hip Hole (Ergonomic Custom Guitar). (2008). Retrieved September 16, 2011, from http://http//youtu.be/gdGp-H47ikg

Earl Klugh LIVE! Tropical Legs. (2009). Retrieved September 27, 2011, from http://http//youtu.be/zb1U6SDffOM

Earl Klugh - This Time. (2008). Retrieved September 8, 2011, from http://youtu.be/n7fF_eRYM5k

Ferguson, R., Manser, M., & Pickering, D. (2000). The Penguin Concise Thesaurus. London: Penguin Group.

Hagedorn, R. (2000). Tools for practice in occupational therapy: A structured approach to core skills and processes. London: Churchill Livingstone.

Hopkins, H. L., & Smith, H.D. (1983). Willard and Spackman's occupational therapy. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

How to replace a guitar string. (2009). Retrieved October 4, 2011, from http://http//youtu.be/VFfk91l8UGU

How to tune a guitar. (2009). Retrieved October 4, 2011, from http://http//youtu.be/jr9hODvzNQE

Hunter,D., Bacon, T., Benedetto, R., Burrluck, D., Carter, W., Chandler, D., & Day, P. (2002). Guitar: A complete guide for the player. London: Quantum Publishing Limited.

Israel Houghton and New Breed: "I Am A Friend of God." (2009). Retrieved October 2, 2011, from http://http//youtu.be/ZXFi6lUUz5s

Luttjboer, H. (2010). Guitar exercises. New York: Marie Butler-Knight.

PIO 2 Guitar Playing Craft Activity. (2011). Retrieved September 8, 2011, from

Redemption Song/Playing For Change. (2011). Retrieved October 2, 2011, from http youtube 55s3T7VRQSc

So High - John Legend (Cover). (2010). Retrieved October 13, 2011, from http youtube yy7XzOu3Dsg

Ukulele weeps by Jake Shimabukuro. (2006). Retrieved October 13, 2011, from http youtube puSkP3uym5k

Wikipedia. ( 2011). Julio Iglesias. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julio_Iglesias on 14 October, 2011.

Willis, A. (2006). Step-by-Step guitar making. East Sussex: Guilds of Master Craftsman Publications Ltd.

Tuesday, 4 October 2011

Participation in Occupation 2: Fifth Posting - 'Practical considerations' in playing my guitar

The last time I played my guitar was last week on Saturday afternoon at home in the garage.

I was preparing Church praise and worship songs for the next day, Sunday's service at my Church. I had 4 songs to work on, not necessarily learning to play all of them from scratch as I was familiar with 2 of them I had last played some 2-3 months ago. So, to warm myself up, I decided to start with the 2 familiar songs.

Firstly, I had to replace my number 1 guitar string which had snapped into two in my last session about a week ago. I had bought a replacement set from the Rock Shop in town a few days ago. After replacing this string, I then tuned it into tune with the other strings on the guitar. I then went on to play around with some familiar melodies just to warm my fingers and my mind up to the task at hand. All this preliminary work took about 15 minutes. Luttjeboer (2010) writes that "People who are just beginning to play the guitar are often surprised by how much work the fingers must do. And to keep those mighty digits limber, strong, and injury free, you should take time to warm them up before you put them through the paces of your guitar workout. Just as athletes warm up and stretch their muscles before playing or practising their sport, you should do the same for your fingers before you jump into the real music" (p. 9).

I then listened through the first of the songs on my recorder with my powerful headphones on. The headphones help me to pick up all the sounds (chords & notes) that make up the song. I then went on to write these chords in order in my song book for future reference. I went on to practice the rest of the songs using the same format.

Some approximately 4 hours later, I concluded my happy guitar session.

The above are some of the 'PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS' associated with my guitar playing activity. These include consideration of the venue, equipment and accessories(guitar, belt, guitar pick, strings, bag, chair, amplifier, speaker e.t.c), the condition of the guitar itself and myself, the time it takes to play and the ethics around noise for other uninterested family members and neighbours. Crepeau (2003) states that, "Identifying the multiple demands, skills, and potential meanings of the activity enables practitioners to have a deeper understanding of this activity in general" (p. 191).



Always remember this,"If your strings are poorly attached there is little chance of good tuning stability, and your tone will probably suffer too. Even plenty of experienced players load their strings in ways that fail to optimize their performance, but its easy to learn a stable and efficient technique for stringing-up - either a basic wind or more advanced locking technique" (Hunter, Bacon, Benedetto, Burrluck, Carter, Chandler & Day, 2008, p. 62).



Sunday, 2 October 2011

Participation in Occupation 2: Fourth Posting - AFFORDANCES


This time around, I am exploring affordances.

Affordances, which can also be looked at as 'outcomes of a particular activity,' are defined by Hagedorn, 2000, as "Anything which the environment can offer the individal which is pertinent to role challenge and can facilitate role competence. Aspects of the environment perceived by the person which combine with the person's efficiencies to produce competence (Christiansen & Baum 1997)" p. 307).

Affordances comprise of various components, namely;


From the above list, with regards to my guitar playing, I will explore the first three, namely, communication, connection, and spirituality.

Communication, in guitar playing, takes place in that the music that I play, even without any accompanying vocals, communicates a feeling or mood to whoever is listening to it, me included. This in itself can be spiritual as well in that we sometimes use guitars and other musical instruments to accompany worship and prayer at my Church. This, we believe, helps us connect horizontally with each other as fellow christians and vertically with our God. "It is through our activities that we are connected with life and with other human beings. Through the activities in which we engage, we learn about the world, test our knowledge, practice skills, express our feelings, experience pleasure, take care of our needs for survival, develop competence, and achieve mastery over our destinies" (Hopkins & Smith, 1983, p. 296). I achieve all these just through playing my guitar.

Below is a Christian Pentecostal'Praise and Worship' concert led by a guitar playing Worship Leader.
< Israel Houghton and New Breed: "I Am A Friend of God" Praise and Worship Song


I have also made new friends of different cultures and nationalities through playing my guitar in public places like in parks and at the beach like in this analogy below of the famous reggae song 'Redemption song' composed by the great late Bob Marley.


Tuesday, 27 September 2011

Participation in Occupation 2: Third Posting - Aesthetics with the guitar

The Penguin Concise Thesaurus (Dictionary) has the meaning of the word 'aesthetic' given as "tasteful, classic, artistic, beautiful, cultured, refined" (Ferguson, Manser, & Pickering, 2000, p. 17).

There are various styles of guitar playing, some rough and not having much in the form of aesthetics, and some quite melodious and soothing and what I might consider as having "aesthetics."
Compare and contrast the two guitar playing styles below; A & B. I believe the first one is rough and hard and wouldn't fit in the meaning of aesthetic (tasteful, classic, beautiful, cultured, refined). The second one is a mellow and jazzy tune which, according to me, fits the bill in terms of aesthetics. Aesthetics though is subjective and this moreso in playing a musical instrument like a guitar where one person's classic hit is another's most boring tune. Sample these out

A - Hard and rough


B - Smooth and mellow


In guitar playing, it is not only the style of play that determines the end product sound, but also, the make or model of the guitar plays a crucial part.
"Any good instrument is far more than the sum of its individual parts, but the design and materials used for each component - and the way they all come together - determine the sound and playability of your guitar" (Hunter ,Bacon, Benedetto, Burrluck, Carter, Chandler & Day, 2002, p. 9).

When I was looking for a guitar to buy, I really concentrated on certain world renowned models because I believe that the kind of music I like playing needs the best designs around in terms of sound production. "Well-made acoustic guitars are like fine wines: they need time to mature, and if taken care of and played regularly, they will develop subtleties in sound and tone that will bring enjoyment to both player and listener for many years to come" (Willis, 2006, p. 9).

Friday, 16 September 2011

Participation in Occupation 2: Second Posting - ERGONOMICS


Ergonomics looks mainly at improving activity productivity "...while minimising the adverse effects of task performance, such as fatigue, repetitive strain, stress, boredom and occupational injuries...The nature of work and its effects on the human body and in the capacity of the individual to respond to these demands" (Hagedorn, 2000, p. 177).

Whether one chooses to play the guitar whilst sitting or standing is mainly a matter of preference. Most playing positions are determined by where and for whom one is playing for (Luttjeboer, 2010). When I am practicing my guitar playing at home for long periods (2-4 hours), I find it less tiresome to do so in a seated position. This automatically changes when I am playing the guitar at Church where I have to be standing as part of worship, but probably play for just about 30 to 45 minutes at a time.

Guitars are also designed with ergonomics in mind using anthropometry in general or specifically for custom made guitars like the example below. The ergonomically designed guitar below is about how an instrument relates to the body when in use during playing/performance or what I would call 'occupation versus ergonomics compatibility.' This ties up with and supports Caulton & Dickson (2007) when they write that ergonomics is about constantly making "... slight invisible adjustments to an activity to adapt to the needs of those taking part and ensure that it continues to work for its intended purpose" (p. 93).

An ergonomically designed custom made guitar


Other than the ergonomic considerations of the equipment (guitar), ergonomics also involves the environment and the mood of the activity. In guitar playing, the design of the guitar can also affect endurance during a performance (light versus heavy instrument or generic design versus custom made as above). These can have a bearing on conditions such as 'Occupational Overuse Syndrome' (O.O.S) if I play for long periods, especially when playing standing.

Thursday, 8 September 2011

Participation in Occupation 2: First posting


ACTIVITY: Playing the guitar.

Guitar playing is the activity that I will be exploring this time around. It is something I learnt to play during my primary school years in the seventies and have enjoyed playing ever since. I can spend hours on end playing the guitar alone, with my sons or with friends at home, at the beach or out in the country whilst enjoying the scenery.



Playing the Guitar


Key points about what it really means to me.

Two things:

1. Time out alone for me, strumming on the guitar and singing familiar songs, chilling out, relaxing, de-stressing and calming my nerves whilst entertaining myself or friends.

2. Playing with others as a group or band with other additional instruments such as drums, keyboards, bongos, congas, chimes and other guitars. This as part of socialising or at Church as part of religious worship.

Personal experience of doing the activity (include mindfulness).

I sometimes have to listen to a song numerous times before I attempt to play it. Attempting to play it may also take me hours of patient practice until I master it. This helps in building a mind that can concentrate for long periods.

Mindfulness - I can sometimes play my guitar whilst simultaneously having a conversation or watching a TV programme.

As an OT student, what it means to me in terms of occupational activity

Playing guitar benefits in terms of occupation:

1. Cognitive exercise of the mind as a lot of concentration and patience is needed to master just one 3 minute song.

2. Entertaining self and others and helping others in praise and worship in a Church service.

3. Exercising the distal hand muscles and fine motor skills for someone rehabilitating or just strengthening these muscles.

NOTE: The great musician Julio Iglesias first started playing a guitar as rehabilitation after a very bad car accident.

Sunday, 3 April 2011

Tutorial 8: Assistive Technology


It is "...any product, instrument or strategy, service and practice used by people with disabilities and older people - specially produced or generally available - to prevent, compensate, relieve or neutralise the impairment, disability or handicap, and improve the individual's autonomy and quality of life" (Pain, McLellan & Gore, 2003, p. 14)

To me, Assistive Technology refers to any equipment/devices that helps disabled people enhance the performance of their activities for daily living, be it personal cares, work, or leisure. This brings into focus items such as wheelchairs (including power chairs), walking frames, talking diaries, Hi-vis keyboards, braille, educational software, etc.

The video below answers a few questions about assistive technology


Describe one piece of equipment introduced in the assistive technology tutorial.
Talking Diary/Album
Below is an explanation on how the talking photo album could be used


This is in the format of a photo album. All the pages have a record button with a microphone used to give verbal audio instructions accompanied by an appropriate relevant guiding picture that gives a cue to a person with memory problems on stages of processes such as cooking a meal.

This device can cost a much as $130 and comes in A3 and A5 sizes. Occupational capacity of the user is enhanced because all the client needs to remember is to play it back and follow instructions and all occupations will be attended to. This website http://www.starmobility.co.nz/ has this and other forms of assisstive equipment.

"Talking Photo Album - A3

Level 2 assistive technology device to assist child with morning routine.


"Combine literacy and ICT with this Talking Photo Album.

Leading on from the popular A5 Talking Photo Album, TTS bring you a bigger A3 sized album with all the same recording features, plus a loud speaker and larger visual area for children to display their stories and work.

The Talking Photo Album supports speaking and listening on the new Literacy framework especially focusing on photo sequences, presentations, hiding and revealing pictures and word recognition.

Record your stories, timetables or messages with the Talking Photo Album. Simply insert drawings or photographs into the plastic wallets and record up to a 10 second message on every page.

Each individual voice message can be played back at any time, simply with a push of a button" http://www.starmobility.co.nz/


Guitar playing for the blind



Guitar hero for the disabled. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://youtu.be/RZuqzoaa_0Q

Pain, H., McLellan, L., Gore, S. (2003). Choosing assistive devices: A guide for users and professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Talking photo album. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://youtu.be/gMLV409Sbdw

Talking photo album. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://youtu.be/0UhPyj1asQA

What is assisstive technology. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://youtu.be/BIxus1IQK6s

Tutorial 7: Linking blogs of interest and exchanging comments.

Task One: Make a blog feed for your chosen 5 blogs. You can use Google reader and other tools to do this.

Below is a list of my chosen blogs.

1. Occupational Therapy Notes http://otnotes.blogspot.com/

2. ABC Therapeutics

3. Autism Blog leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk

4. Cara Tate carapo1.blogspot.com

5. Medical News Today www.medicalnewstoday.com/sections/rehabilitation/

Provide a record of at least one communication you have as a result of your blog postings

Medical News Today Opinion Included

Show Details

Dear Godhelp Nyashanu,

This is an automated email to inform you that your opinion titled 'Mental Food' has been included in the Voice Your Opinion section of Medical News Today.

To view the entire opinion thread, please see the link below: It is titled "DIET LINK TO BI-POLAR DISORDER-VISITOR-OPINION-MEDICAL-NEWS-TODAY"


Kind Regards

Medical News Today Administration

Friday, 1 April 2011

Tutorial 6: The Internet and online communities.

Introduce a chosen topic of interest drawn from your fieldwork experience, an OT practice area or a personal occupation. Search online for at least three communities that relate to this topic and address the following questions and tasks.


This is my chosen topic of interest from my own personal hobby/occupation. I am a musical instrument enthusiast. I have a passion for learning how to play musical instruments. I also love listening to all kinds of music whilst at home or driving on the motorway. I have known for some time that there is something called music therapy (cognitive), therapy using musical intruments (motor) and music/dance therapy or as occupational fun/leisure used by some health professionals such as us OTs and Music Therapists. This is of interest to me as a student of Occupational Therapy who likes to think in other terms, out of the box.When I was on placement at the Stewart Centre in Hamilton, I became part of the use of music use as  therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury patients. As a guitar and Bongoes player, I was slotted in with a fellow student co-playing and singing together with the patients on Thursday mornings to play a couple of happy sing along songs with all the clients singing along, helped by a group of old people from an Old People's Home close by.


1. Australian Music Therapy Association http://www.austmta.org.au/

2. British Society for Music Therapy http://www.bsmt.org/

3. American Music Therapy Association http://www.musictherapy.org/

All these three societies' websites deal with basically the same issues, namely, member discussions on the websites about membership,training, accreditation, linking, funding, diary of events, and publications (Journals and Newsletters)

Provide a brief description of each community

Below is an advertisement/announcement for this year's conference for the Australian Music Therapy Association in Bribane, Australia. This explains about all that they are about.

"Australian Music Therapy Association

Welcome to the 37th AMTA National Conference

We look forward to welcoming you to Brisbane in 2011
for the 37th Conference

Conference: 17 and 18 September 2011
PDS: 15 and 16 September 2011

Royal on the Park Hotel, corner of Alice and Albert Streets, Brisbane

Family, groups and systems: The ecology of music therapy

Programs | Conference | PDS

This year’s conference will put the spotlight on families, groups and systems, exploring how these interact with clients, therapists and interventions to influence the way we conduct and reflect on our work. We will seek to understand and gain new perspectives related to treatment, theory and research by viewing these, our clients, and ourselves through an ecological lense.

Both clients and therapists come from or live within a family of some form and are also part of particular groups – whether they be treatment groups, professional groups, community or cultural groups. Other systems that surround our work include the communities in which we work, the institutions which employ us, and the current policy and governing environments.

This conference will be asking us to consider the following questions. How is the modern family changing and how do societal trends and values impact on the family unit and what does this mean for music therapy and the people who practice and participate in it? How do we best understand family and group dynamics in ways that contribute to our work? What does music therapy mean to families and groups who engage in it and what does it mean for the families of music therapists? How do we see ourselves as a professional group– who are we, where are we headed and what is our function and role in the healthcare system?

This year we have invited two keynote speakers to illuminate this theme.

Associate Professor Jan Nicholson, Principal Research Fellow at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute and Adjunct Associate Professor in the Centre for Learning Innovation, Queensland University of Technology

Associate Professor Jan Nicholson has a background in child and family psychology with post-doctoral training in public health. Dr Nicholson’s research examines the influence of contemporary family, social and organisational environments on children’s healthy development, with a particular focus on vulnerable families. Jan has had significant experience in researching the effectiveness of music therapy with families and so will bring a strong research perspective to the conference.

Lucy Forrest, RMT, MMus (Ethno) BMus (Therapy) Hons

Lucy Forrest has been working in palliative care music therapy for 16 years, and currently works with Mercy Palliative Care in Melbourne, providing palliative and bereavement support to children, adults and families. Lucy is also a PhD candidate at the University of Melbourne, and her research is examining the experience of music for paediatric palliative care patients and their parents, who come from diverse cultural backgrounds.

To join the conference mailing list please email your details to the AMTA office.

Australian Music Therapy Association"


"The British Society for Music Therapy was founded in 1958 by Juliette Alvin and her colleagues under the name of 'Society for Music Therapy and Remedial Music' with the object of promoting the use and development of music therapy. This is still, in 2010, our aim. The BSMT is a Registered Charity, Number 260837.

At that time music therapy was scarcely known as a profession, although music had been acknowledged as a means of healing for thousands of years. The BSMT was vital in supporting the work of the early pioneers and in helping the developing profession to gain the respect and status which it now enjoys. The BSMT has grown into an organisation which reaches people with an interest in music therapy all over the UK and worldwide.

The BSMT acts as an advisory body and is a centre of information and dissemination on services, training, bibliography and research, receiving from home and abroad a vast number of enquiries on all aspects of music therapy.

Membership of the British Society for Music Therapy is open to anyone interested in music therapy. The international membership of the BSMT (currently around 800 people) represents many different professions including music therapists, musicians, medical and para-medical personnel, teachers, social workers, parents and students. Since 2000 members of the Association of Professional Music Therapists have automatically become members of the BSMT. Please go to the Membership page for further details.

The Society is run by the Chairperson, Executive Committee members and the administration team in the BSMT Office. The Executive Committee meets regularly in London to plan the future activities of the Society as well as the everyday running of the BSMT. Further committees are set up to deal with other events, such as the successful 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, held in Oxford from the 23rd-28th July 2002 with over 800 therapists attending. This huge event was planned by an Organising Committee of 8 music therapists and an International Scientific Committee of 22 music therapists and the administration team in the BSMT office.

There is also an Advisory Council"

"American Music Therapy Association

"AMTA's purpose is the progressive development of the therapeutic use of music in rehabilitation, special education, and community settings. Predecessors, unified in 1998, included the National Association for Music Therapy founded in 1950 and the American Association for Music Therapy founded in 1971. AMTA is committed to the advancement of education, training, professional standards, credentials, and research in support of the music therapy profession.

What is the Profession of Music Therapy?
Music Therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program" (http://www.musictherapy.org/)

Below is a 'Youtube' video showcasing disabled people dancing just like any other breakdancers around town. They Are showing that disability does not mean inability as they partake in their favoured activities for daily living/leisure.


Below, exceptionally talented musicians with autism
Overcoming autism, spreading hope through music


Below, music being used as a catalyst for meditation.


Below, Zimbabwean Disabled musicians performing in London. Music (performing and recording) is now their livelihood, their main occupation, though it started as a therapy tool to cure boredom. Technology helps a lot in the modifications of their instruments for ease of play.



Australian Music Therapy Association. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://www.austmta.org.au/

American Music Therapy Association. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://www.musictherapy.org/

Breakdancing of Disabled People. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from youtu.be/0b_9rhnn1r4

British Society for Music Therapy. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://www.bsmt.org/

Liyana @ NAM 2009 Part 1. (2011). retrieved from, youtu.be/tWM4ie1qF7E, on 11 May, 2011.

Master Reiki Meditation Music, Calm Abiding Music. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from youtu.be/WPvMJ0LMTtY

Overcoming autism, spreading hope through music. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from youtu.be/ho18gaNa8Ow

Tutorial Five: Video Production Sessions

Provide a brief summary of the services offered by YouTube

YouTube is a Google owned video hosting and sharing service which lets users view and upload video files. Users can rate, add comments, and subscribe to videos and their favourite producers. It is located on the web @ URL www.youtube.com. A short history of YouTube is given below by wikipedia.

"YouTube is a video-sharing website on which users can upload, share, and view videos, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005.[3]
The company is based in San Bruno, California, and uses Adobe Flash Video and HTML5 [4] technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips, and music videos, as well as amateur content such as video blogging and short original videos. Most of the content on YouTube has been uploaded by individuals, although media corporations including CBS, BBC, Vevo, Hulu and other organizations offer some of their material via the site, as part of the YouTube partnership program.[5]
Unregistered users may watch videos, and registered users may upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos that are considered to contain potentially offensive content are available only to registered users 18 and older. In November 2006, YouTube, LLC was bought by Google Inc. for $1.65 billion, and now operates as a subsidiary of Google

Video technology
Viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer requires the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed in the browser. The Adobe Flash Player plug-in is one of the most common pieces of software installed on personal computers and accounts for almost 75% of online video material.[37]
In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that uses the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard. This allows videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed.[38][39] The YouTube site has a page that allows supported browsers to opt in to the HTML5 trial. Only browsers that support HTML5 Video using the H.264 or WebM formats can play the videos, and not all videos on the site are available.[40][41]
Videos uploaded to YouTube by standard account holders are limited to 15 minutes in duration. When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload longer videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films.[42][43] The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010.[44] Partner accounts are permitted to upload longer videos, subject to acceptance by YouTube.[45] File size is limited to 2 GB for uploads from YouTube web page, and to 20 GB if Java-based Advanced Uploader is used. In December 2010, YouTube announced that holders of standard accounts would be allowed to upload videos of unlimited length, provided that they have a good history of following the site's Community Guidelines and policy on copyright.[46][47] YouTube accepts videos uploaded in most container formats, including .AVI, .MKV, .MOV, .MP4, DivX, .FLV, and .ogg and .ogv. These include video formats such as MPEG-4, MPEG, VOB, and .WMV. It also supports 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones.[48] Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube prefers interlaced videos to be deinterlaced prior to uploading. All the video formats on YouTube use progressive scanning.[49]
Quality and codecs"

Introduce a chosen topic of interest drawn from your fieldwork experience, an OT practice area or a personal occupation.

MY chosen topic is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

"Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is defined by the Brain Injury Association of America as 'an insult to the brain, not of degenerative or congenital nature, caused by an external physical force that may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness, which results in impairments of cognitive abilities or physical functions. It can also result in the disturbance of behavioural or emotional functioning" (Atchison & Dirette, 2007, p. 231).

Find five different sources of online video content that help explain, demonstrate or provide personal experience of your topic.












Atchison, B. J., & Dirette, D. K. (2007). Conditions in occupational therapy: Effect on occupational performance (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Basic Facts About Traumatic Brain Injury. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://youtu.be/SeqrFcS7HFc.

Interview with Gerald McClellan 6 years after Traumatic Brain Injury. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://youtu.be/lr8yMCAZKoI.

Justin's comeback from brain injury. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://youtu.be/LGz-unNi1dU.

Traumatic Brain Injury-ESPN Outside the Lines. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://youtu.be/Q8DXiCr3-jE.

Treating Traumatic Brain Injury wit Neurotopia. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://youtu.be/d-TOzS4CWpA.

Youtube.(2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YouTube

Tuesday, 15 March 2011

Tutorial 4: Video Productions Sessions

We planned in our group to produce a 30 second film, BELOW.

The letter L is the key

Learning is FUN at Otago Polytechnic with my PIO 1 Technology use group. The theme letter here was 'L' as in Laugh, Locker, Love, Labour, Lunges, Leading, Lonely, and Leaving, as depicted well in the video scenes below that we produced.

Group Work

We first sat down as a group and agreed on the practical activities that matched our theme letter 'L' that we needed to act and record on video.

We then went outside the classroom, recorded our scenes taking turns to record and play parts. We then came back to class and searched 'Youtube' for appropriate music to suite our theme and actions. We then edited the finished product so that it would fit into the 30 seconds allocated for this project. The 'above' product was our result.

Tuesday, 1 March 2011

Tutorial 3: Blog Creation Tasks.

This is the lesson that I learnt all about setting up my blog.

I set up my blog account with Blogger.

I then learnt to use Flikr to import photoes into my blog.

What is Flikr?

"About Flickr

Flickr - almost certainly the best online photo management and sharing application in the world - has two main goals:

1. We want to help people make their photos available to the people who matter to them.

Maybe they want to keep a blog of moments captured on their cameraphone, or maybe they want to show off their best pictures or video to the whole world in a bid for web celebrity. Or maybe they want to securely and privately share photos of their kids with their family across the country. Flickr makes all these things possible and more!

To do this, we want to get photos and video into and out of the system in as many ways as we can: from the web, from mobile devices, from the users' home computers and from whatever software they are using to manage their content. And we want to be able to push them out in as many ways as possible: on the Flickr website, in RSS feeds, by email, by posting to outside blogs or ways we haven't thought of yet. What else are we going to use those smart refrigerators for?

Flickr is the WD-40 that makes it easy to get photos or video from one person to another in whatever way they want.

2. We want to enable new ways of organizing photos and video.

Once you make the switch to digital, it is all too easy to get overwhelmed with the sheer number of photos you take or videos you shoot with that itchy trigger finger. Albums, the principal way people go about organizing things today, are great -- until you get to 20 or 30 or 50 of them. They worked in the days of getting rolls of film developed, but the "album" metaphor is in desperate need of a Florida condo and full retirement.

Part of the solution is to make the process of organizing photos or videos collaborative. In Flickr, you can give your friends, family, and other contacts permission to organize your stuff - not just to add comments, but also notes and tags. People like to ooh and ahh, laugh and cry, make wisecracks when sharing photos and videos. Why not give them the ability to do this when they look at them over the internet? And as all this info accretes as metadata, you can find things so much easier later on, since all this info is also searchable.

Flickr continues to evolve in myriad ways, all of which are designed to make it easier and better. Check out the Flickr Blog to stay apprised of the latest developments. The fact that you've read to the end of this entire document and are hanging out at the bottom of this page with nothing but this silly text to keep you company is proof of a deep and abiding interest on your part. What are you waiting for? Sign up now!"

Below, how to use Flikr



Flikr Tutorial. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011, from youtu.be/8RqvKXgQc9w

Tutorial 2: Digital Imaging.

List some of the ways that digital images are stored, transferred, and manipulated using information technology.

Hardware: USB (Universal Serial Bus), Computer RAM (Random Access Memory, the computer's memory), Compact Disc (CD), DVDs, Graphic Cards, Hard Drive, Key Board, Mouse, Printer etc.

Software: Auto CAD, MS Word, Video games, world wide web (www) etc.

Provide at least 3 examples of the use of digital imaging to provide information and recording

WEBCAM, Internet sites, Youtube videos, Patient progress photoes, google earth, wises maps, dictaphone, digital recorders, mp3 players etc.

Patient progress photoes: Photographing a patient's progress stages as Intervention plans are monitored to gauge how much progress they are making.

Youtube video: This is now used by other people with more knowledge about particular conditions and/or diseases to pass on their knowledge and experience to those looking for it in far away places. This can also lead to exchange of vital information across the globe, formation of groupings that can have lively discussions on the Internet through comments and responses.

Digital recorders: can be used by Traumatic Brain Injury patients to store instructions for specific processes they might be struggling to remember, or as audio diaries.

"A new technology is rarely superior to an old one in every feature"

New Digital Camera Technology is generally superior to the old because it always brings with it the latest and most advanced photo and video shooting software. A good example is the pixels that enhance picture quality and clarity that are always being increased into exponential mega pixels.

Image storage is also easier with new technology because there are various ways of doing it, e.g. on the camera graphic card, flashcard, CD, DVD etc. One can also easily edit their photos/videos. Printing can be done anywhere. Viewing can be done on the PC or TV screen at home.

Compared to old technology, new technology is more expensive and tends to change very fast making recently acquired gadgets obsolete in a matter of months. Old technology has one of its drawbacks the use of specialised dark rooms to process photos.

Given the prevalence of image capturing and distribution using IT, what ethical issues may arise with their use?

Ownership of photos or videos gets the same respect and treatment as in intellectual property ownership. Informed consent is of paramount importance, otherwise one winds up defending themselves in a court of law after being sued for unauthorised or unethical use of photos and videos.

Briefly discuss some of the ways that digital images could, or, are, being used in occupational therapy practice

Handouts are being designed and produced that have verbal and graphic instructions on how certain techniques should be performed eg standing up after a Total Hip Replacement Operation or proper sitting when driving for energy conservation.

This site would help an OT teach about the rehabilitation of Hip Joint operatees.http://orthopedics.about.com/od/hipkneereplacement/p/hiprehab.htm.

Tutorial 1: Information Technology and Ethical Issues.

Hallo, my name is Godhelp Nyashanu. I am a second year Bachelor of Occupational Therapy student at Otago Polytechnic,  based at the Hamilton Campus.

 The subject 'Participation in Occupation' is teaching me how to practically employ technology (computers and the internet) in the design of Intervention Plans for Occupational Therapy clients. It is a fact of life that computers and the world wide web (www) have taken over all aspects of life in this modern world. OTs have to be technogeeks in order to be effective out there. Some of the clients we will deal with after graduating will be geeks and if one is a Technophobe, one will become dysfunctional as a relevant OT in these times and looking into the future.

All modern (anything after year 2000) occupations in the developed and developing world have one or other link to computers and internet world wide web (www) activities. Whether one is at home watching TV, playing home video games (Nintendo Wi), cooking using a microwave oven, completing school/college/university assignments on a lap/desktop or PC, texting,tweeting,facebooking,driving an automatic, air-conditioned and highly computerized vehicle, one is always using computer technology and the internet.

I will use my blog to look at the way MUSIC plays a part in the occupational needs of various kinds of people across numerous nations and cultures of this world. I will endeavour to look at music as used for therapy (cognitive & motor; as in dance to music), for leisure and for teaching issues about life like its application in educational settings.

This was the introductory  session were I learnt all about setting up a blogg. I actually went on to set up the blogg and called it rototuna.blogspot.com/. In the following two weeks, I then managed to upload and download  a couple of photoes and videos onto my blogg and added musical sites that I am following that have a link to Occupational Therapy.

What is Information Technology/Information Communications Technology?
"Information Technology – A Definition:
We use the term information technology or IT to refer to an entire industry. In actuality, information technology is the use of computers and software to manage information. In some companies, this is referred to as Management Information Services (or MIS) or simply as Information Services (or IS). The information technology department of a large company would be responsible for storing information, protecting information, processing the information, transmitting the information as necessary, and later retrieving information as necessary."

In my own words, I would define Information Technology as the use of electronic gadgets such as computers, ipods, and mobile phones to send, receive and store information.

Below is a video of that also helps explain what Information Technology is all about.


Below is a video that shows how prevalent IT is in our society today, starting with the clock radio that wakes all of us up everyday.


The hardware/software products I feel comfortable using are mobile phones, laptop/PC, Digital Cameras, audio and visual recorders and various household appliances/products. All my limitations for using other products are the result of lack of knowledge, skill, opportunity and experience in using the other numerous IT products such as i-pods/pads.

IT has become very useful in OT practice in various forms such as when recommendations are made for deserving clients to be issued and use electric/electronic/computerised 'Assisstive Devices' such as wheelchairs, read/write/audio powered PCs/Laptops for survival, learning, and leisure.

Issues that exist around OTs adoption of IT systems and tools are those of the knowledge and skills needed to use whatever technology one has decided to use. The OT has to learn so they can teach the client, meaning that the OT will always be learning as technology is always developing into newer, better, faster and more efficient versions.

Below, an Occupational Therapist using advanced adapted IT equipment with a client.


"What is Intellectual Property?

Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.

IP is divided into two categories: Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source; and Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programs. For an introduction to IP for non-specialists, refer to:" (http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/) retrieved 2 April 2011.

Social Justice is concerned with equal justice in all aspects of society, demanding that all people have equal rights and opportunities on an equal playing field. "All social values - liberty and opportunity, income and wealth, and the bases of self - respect are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution of any, or all, of these values is to everyone's advantage" Rawls,J. (1973). A theory of justice. Oxford: Oxford university press.

"Informed consent is a concept in the medical community which supports the idea that patients should be fully informed at all stages of medical treatment and medical trials" (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-informed-consent.htm) retrieved 2 April 2011. To me, it is agreeing verbally or otherwise to procedures and processes to be performed on your body with all relevant information supplied to inform this decision. An example of 'Informed Consent' would be when OTs ask clients if they are okay with having students around observing their sessions for educational purpoese.


Everyday technology .(2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011,from youtu.be/KjonO2cDyrM

Information Technology-Definition and History.(2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011,from http://jobsearchtech.about.com/od/careersintechnology/p/ITDefinition.htm

Information Technology Industry. (2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011,from youtu.be/YgWnhS5WyfM

Occupational Therapists using technology .(2011). Retrieved May 11, 2011,from youtu.be/A4Bf9Sv8JdE